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1.  Which of the following conditions normally occurs during phase two of anesthetic induction?

A. hypotension.
B. vasoconstriction.
C. thrashing movements.
D. cessation of breathing.

Correct answer is C.


Reference: Rothrock, J.C. (ed.). (2015). Alexander’s care of the patient in surgery, pp 136-137. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier/Mosby.

Rationale: Phase two of anesthesia induction is referred to as the excitement or delirium stage. Stage two starts at loss of consciousness, start of regular breathing, and loss of eye reflexes. During the excitement phase patients may start thrashing. 


2. Evidence-based practice (EBP) includes:

A. expert opinions
B. use of best available research
C. traditions
D. case studies

Correct answer is B.


Reference: Reference: Rothrock, J.C. (ed.). (2015). Alexander’s care of the patient in surgery, pp. 9-11. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier/Mosby.

Rationale: EBP promotes decision based on scientific evidence. The other options may be used as to guide practice but they are not evidence-based. 


 3. The two solutions approved for use on the eye and ear are _______ and Povidine-iodine.

A. alcohol
B. parachoroxylenol
C. chlorhexidine gluconate
D. iodine mixed with alcohol

Correct answer is B.

Reference: AORN. (2014). Recommended practices: Patient Skin Antisepsis. In Perioperative standards and recommended practices, Table 1, pp. 76-77. Denver, CO: Author.

Rationale: All prep solutions other than Povidine-iodine and Parachoroxylenol can cause corneal and nerve damage. They also can cause deafness if the solution reaches the middle ear.

4. During a laser procedure, the smoke evacuator should be activate just before or at the same time as laser activation and for _________ seconds after the laser has been discontinued. 

A. 20-30
B. 15-20
C. 10-15
D. 5-10

Correct answer is A.

Reference: Phillips, N. (2013). Berry and Kohn’s operating room technique, p. 361. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier/Mosby.

Rationale: After the laser has been discontinued there is residual laser plume. Allowing the smoke evacuator to run for an additional 20-30 seconds allows the residual smoke to be removed. 


5. A patient teaching plan should include an assessment of the patient’s ability, need, and _______ to learn. 

A. acceptance
B. attitude
C. decision
D. readiness

Correct answer is D.

Reference: Lewis, S.L., Dirksen, S.R., Heitkemper, M.M., Bucher, L., & Camera, I.M. (Eds.) (2011). Medical surgical nursing: Assessment and management of clinical problems, p. 50. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier/Mosby.

Rationale: The patient’s readiness to learn is part of a successful teaching plan. If the patient is not ready to learn, the information will not be accepted or retained.